Additional Resources


Review of the Evidence of Sentience in Cephalopod Molluscs and Decapod Crustaceans

An independent report by the London School of Economics (commissioned by the UK Government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) which recognises shrimps as sentient.

Welfare in Farmed Decapod Crustaceans, With Particular Reference to Penaeus vannamei

An academic study reviewing the available literature on "farming practices and the challenges associated with the production of P. vannamei from an animal-centric welfare perspective"

Understanding Shrimp

An article by Viva! which details the natural lives of shrimp in the wild, in addition to giving an overview of current farming practices.

Farmed Shrimp

The World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) article on responsible shrimp farming.

Benefits of Aquatic Animal Welfare for Sustainability

Primarily addressed to public policy and other relevant stakeholders in the sustainability sector. The report demonstrates that animal welfare considerations are inextricably linked to ethical, environmental and social issues, and therefore should be an integral component of sustainable development policies.

Invertebrate Sentience

A series of articles published by Rethink Priorities on the subject of Invertebrate Sentience.

Why Decapod Crustaceans Deserve Legal Animal Welfare Protection

A report from Crustacean Compassion which lays out the legal, ethical and public interest case for the protection of decapods. Explains the science, shows the protection of decapods is commercially and legally feasible, and demonstrates the wealth of public and scientific support.

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Crustacean Compassion - Crustacean Compassion is an award-winning animal welfare organisation dedicated to the humane treatment of decapod crustaceans - Campaigning for the humane treatment of crabs, lobsters and other decapod crustaceans in the UK

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Fish Welfare Initiative - FWI collaborates with corporations, governments, and producers to improve fish welfare standards and practices. FWI aims to reduce the suffering of billions of fish through researching and executing targeted, highly-scalable welfare interventions.

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Aquatic Life Institute - Operating from effective altruism principles, ALI seeks to support and accelerate activities that positively impact aquatic life, focusing on the highest-impact welfare interventions for all aquatic animals on a global scale.


Eurogroup for Animals - As the pan-European advocacy organisation for animals, Eurogroup for Animals challenges decision-makers to bring about positive change, and deliver coordinated advocacy and campaigns at EU level.

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Rethink Priorities - Rethink Priorities is a research organization that conducts critical research to inform policymakers and major foundations about how to best help people and nonhuman animals in both the present and the long-term future.

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Fish Etho Base - Designed to collect, systematise and make available (open access) all ethological knowledge to be found on fish in the wild and in captivity, with a focus on farmed species in order to help improve fish welfare in aquaculture and avoid practices that harm fish.

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Fish Count - Fish Count aims to increase understanding of fish sentience, raise awareness and promote solutions to the suffering of fishes in commercial fishing. It also aims to increase awareness of the welfare issues in fish farming.